Additive manufacturing of lead-free piezoceramics
PTW and NAW design environmentally friendly lead-free piezoceramics for additive manufacturing through material and process development. Piezoceramics are crucial in robotics, energy conversion and medical technology. Their increasing use is becoming a huge problem as they contain large amounts of toxic lead resulting in non-recyclable electrical waste. Lead-free piezoceramics developed so far fail to reach the high performance of their lead-based pendants and thus new approaches are required.